Turkmenistan, a post-Soviet country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Iran. Annexed by Russia in the late 1800s, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. In 1924, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic. It achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. Despite its extensive hydrocarbon and natural gas reserves, much of Turkmenistan’s population is still impoverished.

Turkmenistan’s capital is Ashgabat, its population is over 5 million (85% Turkmen, 5% Uzbek, 4% Russian).